Edinburgh

The area around modern-day Edinburgh (Ancient), “Edenborrough” aka “Bodoriam”  had been inhabited by the Attalins (Attacotte) from Attica of the Ægean Sea, “Pala”-istine ‘place of the Pala’ “Sea people”  (Palas Goddess of the Sea) whom Athena had an accidental victory over, making Athena – balas aka High Queen (Brythania) ruling over the Highland and High Sea,  Atlusian “sea people” had colonies all around the the known “World” with based upon the Don river that divided Europe fom Asia with their great center upon the Pontus Sea and Aegean Sea that controled all  Sea and Fresh waterways to the  Coastal waters North, East, South and West past  “Al-Andalus” ( Al= Rock of Van-da-lusia [Luwian language] of the Kingdom of Van centered around the holy Mt Urarta aka Ararta) the rock is to day called Gibralta of the Attalant/dic Godelic people (Gothelic or Goidelic).

In 1200 BC the island of Thera erupted in the Ægean Sea, scattering all the Sea People out to their colonies on the outer edges of the EuroÆsian mainland called Armorica aka America upon the Oceans of the Atlusians.  The eruption caused a great  migratiion of  the “sea peoples” including the  Trojans, people from the Taurus Mt’s (Wallusia aka Gaullusia also Walholant/d aka *Walula) to Alba Longa in Italy were the ancestors of Brutus and Ebraucus (Evrog, Efrawc); King of the free people (Piuda) Brythanes (Cheif-tains)  came from,  as  Brithanes (Cheiftains or Britains), Ebraucus,  Died: abt. 966 BC, he was a son of Mempricius (Membyr), King of the  Brithanes where the hillfort was established in the Lugdonian (Lothain) area, on the “Castrum “Fort” Rock, called Alatum. From the seventh to the tenth centuries it was part of the Anglian Kingdom of North Humbria “Brichanach”,

Northumberland originally meant ‘the land of the people living north of the River Humber’. The present county is the core of that former land, and has long been a frontier zone between England and Scotland. During Roman occupation of Britain, most of the present county lay north of Hadrian’s Wall. It was controlled by Rome only for the brief period of its extension of power north to the Antonine Wall. The Roman road Dere Street crosses the county from Corbridge over high moorland west of the Cheviot Hills into present Scotland to Trimontium (Melrose). As evidence of its border position through medieval times, Northumberland has more castles than any other county in England,[10] including those at Alnwick, Bamburgh, Dunstanburgh, Newcastle and Warkworth. Northumberland has a rich prehistory with many instances of rock art, hillforts such as Yeavering Bell, and stone circles such as the Goatstones and Duddo Five Stones. Most of the area was occupied by the BrythonicCeltic Votadini people, with another large tribe, the Brigantes, to the south.

An early mention of Northumberland in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle Later, the region of present-day Northumberland formed the core of the Anglian  “Sasanaigh” (lowlanders) of the kingdom of Bernicia (from about 547), which united with Deira (south of the River Tees) to form the kingdom of Northumbria in the 7th century. The historical boundaries of Northumbria under King Edwin (reigned 616–633) stretched from the Humber in the south to the Forth in the north. After the battle of Nechtansmere its influence north of the Tweed began to decline as the Picts gradually reclaimed the land previously invaded by the Saxon kingdom. In 1018 its northern part, the region between the Tweed and the Forth (including Lothian that contains present-day Edinburgh), was ceded to the Kingdom of Scotland. Northumberland is often called the “cradle of Christianity” in England, because Christianity flourished on Lindisfarne—a tidal island north of Bamburgh, also called Holy Island—after King Oswald of Northumbria (reigned 634–642) invited monks from Iona to come to convert the English. A monastery at Lindisfarne was the centre of production of the Lindisfarne Gospels (around 700). It became the home of St Cuthbert (about 634–687, abbot from about 665), who is buried in Durham Cathedral. Bamburgh is the historic capital of Northumberland, the royal castle from before the unification of the Kingdoms of England under the monarchs of the House of Wessex in the 10th century. The Earldom of Northumberland was briefly held by the Scottish royal family by marriage between 1139–1157 and 1215–1217. Scotland relinquished all claims to the region as part of the Treaty of York (1237).

The Earls of Northumberland once wielded significant power in English affairs because, as powerful and militaristic Marcher Lords, they had the task of protecting England from Scottish retaliation for English invasions. Northumberland has a history of revolt and rebellion against the government, as seen in the Rising of the North (1569–1570) against Elizabeth I of England. These revolts were usually led by the Earls of Northumberland, the Percy family. Shakespeare makes one of the Percys, the dashing Harry Hotspur (1364–1403), the hero of his Henry IV, Part 1. The Percys were often aided in conflict by other powerful Northern families, such as the Nevilles and the Patchetts. The latter were stripped[by whom?] of all power and titles after the English Civil War of 1642–1651. After the Restoration of 1660, the county was a centre for Roman Catholicism in England, as well as a focus of Jacobite support. Northumberland was long a wild county, where outlaws and Border Reivers hid from the law. However, the frequent cross-border skirmishes and accompanying local lawlessness largely subsided after the Union of the Crowns of Scotland and England under King James I and VI in 1603.[11] Northumberland played a key role in the Industrial Revolution from the 18th century on. Many coal mines operated in Northumberland until the widespread closures in the 1970s and 1980s. Collieries operated at Ashington, Bedlington, Blyth, Choppington, Netherton, Ellington and Pegswood. The region’s coalfields fuelled industrial expansion in other areas of Britain, and the need to transport the coal from the collieries to the Tyne led to the development of the first railways. Shipbuilding and armaments manufacture were other important industries before the deindustrialisation of the 1980s.

Northumberland remains largely rural, and is the least-densely populated county in England. In recent years the county has had considerable growth in tourism. Visitors are attracted both to its scenic beauty and its historical sites.becoming thereafter a royal residence of the Scottish kings. The town that developed next to the stronghold was established by royal charter in the early 12th century, and by the middle of the 14th century was being described as the capital of Scotland. The area known as the New Town was added from the second half of the 18th century onwards. Edinburgh was Scotland’s largest city until Glasgow outgrew it in the first two decades of the 19th century.